Showing posts with label Expressionism. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Expressionism. Show all posts

Art Movements

This glossary of different art movements will help you define unfamiliar art terms whether you're a student, parent, teacher, or just a curious reader!
Abstract Expressionism
American art movement of the 1940s that emphasized form and color within a nonrepresentational framework. Jackson Pollock initiated the revolutionary technique of splattering the paint directly on canvas to achieve the subconscious interpretation of the artist's inner vision of reality.
Art Deco
A 1920s style characterized by setbacks, zigzag forms, and the use of chrome and plastic ornamentation. New York's Chrysler Building is an architectural example of the style.
Art Nouveau
An 1890s style in architecture, graphic arts, and interior decoration characterized by writhing forms, curving lines, and asymmetrical organization. Some critics regard the style as the first stage of modern architecture.
Ashcan School
A group of New York realist artists at the beginning of the twentieth century who rejected the formal subject matter of the academy and focused on gritty urban scenes and ordinary, even ugly, aspects of life.
Assemblage (Collage)
Forms of modern sculpture and painting utilizing readymades, found objects, and pasted fragments to form an abstract composition. Louise Nevelson's boxlike enclosures, each with its own composition of assembled objects, illustrate the style in sculpture. Pablo Picasso developed the technique of cutting and pasting natural or manufactured materials to a painted or unpainted surface.
Barbizon School (Landscape Painting)
A group of 19th-century French painters who rejected idealized landscape painting and sought a more informal, realistic portrayal of nature. They were heavily influenced by 17th-century Dutch genre painting. Theodore Rousseau, one of the principal figures of the group, was a proponent of outdoor painting, based on direct observation of one's surroundings.
Baroque
European art and architecture of the 17th and 18th centuries. Giovanni Bernini, a major exponent of the style, believed in the union of the arts of architecture, painting, and sculpture to overwhelm the spectator with ornate and highly dramatized themes. Although the style originated in Rome as the instrument of the Church, it spread throughout Europe in such monumental creations as the Palace of Versailles.
Beaux Arts
Elaborate and formal architectural style characterized by symmetry and an abundance of sculptured ornamentation. New York's old Custom House at Bowling Green is an example of the style.
Black or African-American Art
The work of American artists of African descent produced in various styles characterized by a mood of protest and a search for identity and historical roots.
Classicism
A form of art derived from the study of Greek and Roman styles characterized by harmony, balance, and serenity. In contrast, the Romantic Movement gave free rein to the artist's imagination and to the love of the exotic.
Constructivism
A form of sculpture using wood, metal, glass, and modern industrial materials expressing the technological society. The mobiles of Alexander Calder are examples of the movement.
Cubism
Early 20th-century French movement marked by a revolutionary departure from representational art. Pablo Picasso and Georges Bracque penetrated the surface of objects, stressing basic abstract geometric forms that presented the object from many angles simultaneously.
Dada
A product of the turbulent and cynical post-World War I period, this anti-art movement extolled the irrational, the absurd, the nihilistic, and the nonsensical. The reproduction of Mona Lisa adorned with a mustache is a famous example. The movement is regarded as a precursor of Surrealism. Some critics regard HAPPENINGS as a recent development of Dada. This movement incorporates environment and spectators as active and important ingredients in the production of random events.
Expressionism
A 20th-century European art movement that stresses the expression of emotion and the inner vision of the artist rather than the exact representation of nature. Distorted lines and shapes and exaggerated colors are used for emotional impact. Vincent Van Gogh is regarded as the precursor of this movement.
Fauvism
The name “wild beasts” was given to the group of early 20th-century French painters because their work was characterized by distortion and violent colors. Henri Matisse and Georges Rouault were leaders of this group.
Futurism
This early 20th-century movement originating in Italy glorified the machine age and attempted to represent machines and figures in motion. The aesthetics of Futurism affirmed the beauty of technological society.
Genre
This French word meaning “type” now refers to paintings that depict scenes of everyday life without any attempt at idealization. Genre paintings can be found in all ages, but the Dutch productions of peasant and tavern scenes are typical.
GothicThe Gothic period was tremendously culturally productive, in painting, sculpture, architecture and illuminated manuscripts.  These art-works are complex, fraught with religious fervor and symbolism. Biblical stories were told and retold continuously--painted, sermonized, allegorized, embellished, creating a convincing and mysterious belief system.
Impressionism
Late 19th-century French school dedicated to defining transitory visual impressions painted directly from nature, with light and color of primary importance. If the atmosphere changed, a totally different picture would emerge. It was not the object or event that counted but the visual impression as caught at a certain time of day under a certain light. Claude Monet and Camille Pissarro were leaders of the movement.
Mannerism
A mid-16th-century movement, Italian in origin, although El Greco was a major practitioner of the style. The human figure, distorted and elongated, was the most frequent subject.
Neo-classicism
An 18th-century reaction to the excesses of Baroque and Rococo, this European art movement tried to recreate the art of Greece and Rome by imitating the ancient classics both in style and subject matter.
Neo-impressionism
A school of painting associated with George Seurat and his followers in late 19th-century France that sought to make Impressionism more precise and formal. They employed a technique of juxtaposing dots of primary colors to achieve brighter secondary colors, with the mixture left to the eye to complete (pointillism).
Op Art
The 1960s movement known as Optical Painting is characterized by geometrical forms that create an optical illusion in which the eye is required to blend the colors at a certain distance.
Pop Art
In this return to representational art, the artist returns to the world of tangible objects in a reaction against abstraction. Materials are drawn from the everyday world of popular culture—comic strips, canned goods, and science fiction.
Realism
A development in mid-19th-century France lead by Gustave Courbet. Its aim was to depict the customs, ideas, and appearances of the time using scenes from everyday life.
Rococo
A French style of interior decoration developed during the reign of Louis XV consisting mainly of asymmetrical arrangements of curves in paneling, porcelain, and gold and silver objects. The characteristics of ornate curves, prettiness, and gaiety can also be found in the painting and sculpture of the period.
Surrealism
A further development of Collage, Cubism, and Dada, this 20th-century movement stresses the weird, the fantastic, and the dreamworld of the subconscious.
Symbolism
As part of a general European movement in the latter part of the 19th century, it was closely allied with Symbolism in literature. It marked a turning away from painting by observation to transforming fact into a symbol of inner experience. Gauguin was an early practitioner.

Wassily Kandinsky

Russian painter and art theorist. He is considered by many to be one of the most famous and creative 20th-century artists and he is credited with painting the first modern abstract artworks. Kandinsky's work was influenced by several important sources and perhaps most importantly by a Theosophy theorist by the name of Blavatsky. Theosophical theory explains that creation is a mathematical progression beginning with a single point and expanding outwards. Kandinsky heavily incorporated this into his abstract art and built an entire style off of the theme. Wassily Kandinsky was born in Moscow, Russia and in his youth he made no attempt to study art. As a student  Kandinsky had initially studied law and economics at the University of Moscow.  but then later transitioned to the arts and began his education at the University of Dorpat. There he studied anatomy, sketching and painting. In 1896 Kandinsky relocated to Germany and continued his education at the Academy of Fine Arts in Munich. Of great importance to the German Expressionist painters movement, in 1909 Kandinsky became president oft he Neue Künstlervereinigung München (a guild of German Expressionist artists that he helped form). Later the group dissipated and Kandinsky formed Der Blaue Reiter or The Blue Rider which was named after a famous art work that he had painted earlier. Kandinsky formed this group with such artists as  Franz Marc and August Macke. Der Blaue Reiter broke apart with the onset of WWI.  He temporarily moved back to Russia after the Russian Revolution had ended but only three years later he moved back to Germany to be with other artists who shared similar artistic viewpoints and concepts. There Kandinsky became a teacher at the Bauhaus from 1922 until it was closed by the Nazis in 1933. After the close of the Bauhaus Kandinsky relocated to France where he lived the rest of his life and eventually became a French citizen in 1939. Kandinsky passed away in 1944.



( german exspressionist style _)

Egon Schiele





 At the age of just 15 years old Schiele's father died of syphilis and Egon Schiele's custody was granted to his uncle who recognized  and was a proponent  of Schiele's artistic talent. At the age of 16 Schiele applied at Kunstgewerbeschule in Vienna, Austria  where Gustav Klimt had also studied. Shortly after his arrival to his new school,  Schiele was transferred to a different school the Akademie der Bildenden Künste. There he studied drawing and painting but felt suffocated by the school’s conservative nature.  In 1907, Schiele sought out Gustav Klimt who was a role model for the young artist. Gustav Klimt was said to encouraged Schiele by buying his drawings and providing him with opportunities. Klimt invited Schiele to exhibit his work at the 1909 Vienna Kunstschau, where Schiele encountered the works of Edvard Munch. At this point in time Shiele's work began to flourish and he began to explore, not only the human form and sexuality with his work. To some his art would considered shocking but captured the publics interest. Schiele's lifestyle was also become more complex and diverse; in April 1912 he was arrested for seducing a young girl below the age of consent. When the police came to his studio to place him under arrest they had seized more than one hundred drawings which they considered pornographic. Schiele was imprisoned  but soon after the charges of seduction and abduction were dropped yet the young artist was found guilty of exhibiting erotic drawings in a place accessible to children. He was sentenced to only 24 days imprisonment. During the time that Schiele spent in prison he created a series paintings depicting the emotions he felt from his imprisonment. Schiele was married in 1915.  In 1918 he was invited to the Secession's 49th exhibition. Schiele had more then forty works displayed in the exhibition. The exhibit was a major success for the artist created a great deal of recognition for the artist. Later that year the Spanish flu epidemic claimed both the lives of Egon and his pregnant wife Edith.  Schiele's final work were all painted of his beloved wife.










Emil Nolde





 German Expressionist painted born in Schleswig (a village near Nolde), Germany. His birth name was Emil Hassen but he later changed it to Emil Nolde after the name of the town near where he grew up in.  Nolde was one of the first Expressionists and a member of famed "Die Brücke" group. He is perhaps best singled out for his heavy brushwork and dramatic use of color. Nolde was a supporter of the Nazi party from the early 1920s. He had considered Expressionism to be a distinctively Germanic style and shared viewpoints with high level Nazi officials such as Joseph Goebbels. Ironically Adolph Hitler rejected all forms of modern art as "degenerate art", and Nolde's work was officially condemned by the Nazi party. Prior to that point in time Nolde had been a highly regarded and famous artist in Germany. More then one thousand of Nolde's works were removed from German museums and some of them were included in the Degenerate Art exhibition of 1937. By law he was not even permitted to paint. In personal protest he considered to do so and created hundreds of watercolors  which he titled the "Unpainted Pictures". After World War II, Nolde was reaffirmed as a great German artist and even received the German Order of Merit, Germany's highest civilian award.

Edvard Munch

"We want more than a mere photograph of nature. We do not want to paint pretty pictures to be hung on drawing-room walls. We want to create, or at least lay the foundations of, an art that gives something to humanity. An art that arrests and engages. An art created of one's innermost heart."(E.M.)
Edvard Munch, Norway's most popular artist, was a painter, lithographer, etcher, and wood engraver. He is looked upon as one of the most significant influences on the development of German and Central European expressionism. Munch's convulsed and tortuous art was formed by the misery and conflicts of his time, and, even more important, by his own unhappy life. Childhood tragedy, intense and dramatic love affairs, alcoholism, and ceaseless traveling are reflected in his works, particularly in paintings like The Sick Child, The Scream, and Vampire. Munch's pictures show his social awareness and his tendency to express, as in Puberty, many of the basic fears and anxieties of mankind.
Edvard Munch became a celebrity in Germany overnight when the inclusion of his works caused the closing of the Verein Berliner Künstler exhibition of 1892. His man-destroying Vampire was decidedly "objectionable." He live and worked in Germany for many years, exerting thereby a tremendous influence on German artist circles.